The author of Hebrews is not known. We know the book was in existence before about 95 C.E. because that was the approximate year 1 Clement was written and it makes use of Hebrews a number of times. It was likely written after 60 C.E., but it is not entirely clear who the target audience was.
The last half of Chapter 2 lays out a rich theology using family metaphors. God is presented as father of us all. We are described as siblings of each other and of Christ. But take note of first six verses in Chapter 3 and see how the author expands and transforms the idea of household to make a theological point.
10 It was fitting that God, for whom and through whom all things exist, in bringing many children to glory, should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 11 For the one who sanctifies and those who are sanctified all have one Father. For this reason Jesus is not ashamed to call them brothers and sisters, 12 saying,
"I will proclaim your name to my brothers and sisters,
in the midst of the congregation I will praise you."
13 And again,
"I will put my trust in him."
"Here am I and the children whom God has given me."
14 Since, therefore, the children share flesh and blood, he himself likewise shared the same things, so that through death he might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil, 15 and free those who all their lives were held in slavery by the fear of death. 16 For it is clear that he did not come to help angels, but the descendants of Abraham. 17 Therefore he had to become like his brothers and sisters in every respect, so that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make a sacrifice of atonement for the sins of the people. 18 Because he himself was tested by what he suffered, he is able to help those who are being tested.
3:1 Therefore, brothers and sisters, holy partners in a heavenly calling, consider that Jesus, the apostle and high priest of our confession, 2 was faithful to the one who appointed him, just as Moses also "was faithful in all God's house." 3 Yet Jesus is worthy of more glory than Moses, just as the builder of a house has more honor than the house itself. 4(For every house is built by someone, but the builder of all things is God.) 5 Now Moses was faithful in all God's house as a servant, to testify to the things that would be spoken later. 6 Christ, however, was faithful over God's house as a son, and we are his house if we hold firm the confidence and the pride that belong to hope. NRSV
Earlier in this series, I wrote about the vilicus in the household system:
This rural villa is what Jesus had in mind in passages where he talked of a master who leaves a servant in charge prior to leaving on journey with a plan to return at some distant date. Many of the villa owners did not live at the rural villas, or they did so for only a portion of the year. They spent most of their days living in the cities where they went about their business. They would leave a man called a vilicus in charge (who could be a free man or a trusted slave.)
Moses was the vilicus for the Household of God but now the son of the paterfamilias has arrived. Since a son has the heart and mind of his father, the vilicus’ supervisory services are no longer central. If we conform ourselves to the image of the paterfamilias’ son in his faithfulness to the father, then we are truly part of the household. We are members of the household, not as slaves, but as siblings of Christ who became one of us and can identify fully with our humanity.
Hebrews goes on to say:
3 Consider him who endured such hostility against himself from sinners, so that you may not grow weary or lose heart. 4 In your struggle against sin you have not yet resisted to the point of shedding your blood. 5 And you have forgotten the exhortation that addresses you as children --
"My child, do not regard lightly the discipline of the Lord,
or lose heart when you are punished by him;
6 for the Lord disciplines those whom he loves,
and chastises every child whom he accepts."
7 Endure trials for the sake of discipline. God is treating you as children; for what child is there whom a parent does not discipline? 8 If you do not have that discipline in which all children share, then you are illegitimate and not his children. 9 Moreover, we had human parents to discipline us, and we respected them. Should we not be even more willing to be subject to the Father of spirits and live? 10 For they disciplined us for a short time as seemed best to them, but he disciplines us for our good, in order that we may share his holiness. 11 Now, discipline always seems painful rather than pleasant at the time, but later it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness to those who have been trained by it.
12 Therefore lift your drooping hands and strengthen your weak knees, 13 and make straight paths for your feet, so that what is lame may not be put out of joint, but rather be healed.
Here the author casts the experience of hardship and trial as fatherly love instead of abandonment. Once again, the Father is not an emotionally distant being but someone who loves us so much he disciplines us, shaping us into the mature people he intends for us to be.
Next, we turn to Ephesians 2:11-22.